Tự kỷ là gì?

Có khỏi được không? Có phải do bố mẹ gây ra? Hay là bệnh của nhà giàu? Những khó khăn của trẻ tự kỷ? Xin giới thiệu khái niệm của Liên hiệp quốc

Tự kỷ là một loại khuyết tật phát triển suốt đời được thể hiện trong vòng 3 năm đầu đời. Tự kỷ là do rối loạn của hệ thần kinh gây ảnh hưởng đến hoạt động của não bộ. Tự kỷ có thể xảy ra ở bất kỳ cá nhân nào không phân biệt giới tính, chủng tộc, giàu nghèo và địa vị xã hội. Tự kỷ được biểu hiện ra ngoài bằng những khiếm khuyết về tương tác xã hội, khó khăn về giao tiếp ngôn ngữ và phi ngôn ngữ, và hành vi, sở thích và hoạt động mang tính hạn hẹp và lặp đi lặp lại.

(Trích dịch từ chuyên trang của Liên hiệp quốc về tự kỷ tại http://www.un.org/en/events/autismday/background.shtml)

Nguyên văn:


Autism is a lifelong developmental disability that manifests itself during the first three years of life. It results from a neurological disorder that affects the functioning of the brain, mostly affecting children and adults in many countries irrespective of gender, race or socio-economic status. It is characterized by impairments in social interaction, problems with verbal and non–verbal communication and restricted, repetitive behaviour, interests and activities.

The rate of autism in all regions of the world is high and it has a tremendous impact on children, their families, communities and societies.

It can bring significant economic hardships to families, given the lack of health resources often found in developing countries. The stigmatization and discrimination associated with these illnesses also remain substantial obstacles to diagnosis and treatment. The absence of autism spectrum disorders and other mental disorders among children from lists of the leading causes of death has contributed to their long-term neglect by both public policy-makers in developing countries, as well as donors.

The Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities entered into force in May 2008. Its purpose is to promote, protect and ensure the full and equal enjoyment of all human rights and fundamental freedoms by all persons with disabilities, and to promote respect for their inherent dignity. (Source: Text of the Convention, article 1) It is a solid tool to foster an inclusive and caring society for all and to ensure that all children and adults with autism can lead full and meaningful lives.

The United Nations General Assembly unanimously declared 2 April as World Autism Awareness Day (A/RES/62/139) to highlight the need to help improve the lives of children and adults who suffer from the disorder.

Secretary-General’s Message for 2011


The number of children and people with autistic conditions continues to rise – in every nation and in every racial, ethnic and social group. Although the recognition of autistic conditions among the scientific, health and care communities is improving, public awareness remains low. The annual observance of World Autism Awareness Day thus takes on ever greater importance as an opportunity to mobilize for action and assistance.

Children and persons with autistic conditions face major challenges associated with stigma and discrimination, as well as a lack of access to support. Many struggle with multiple barriers in their daily lives. Far too many suffer terrible discrimination, abuse and isolation, in violation of their fundamental human rights.

Autism is a complex disorder. But in many cases the right treatment early on can bring improvements. That is why it is so important to raise awareness about the signs of autism and provide services as soon as possible.

It is also critical to support parents, create jobs for individuals with autism based on their skills and strengths, and improve public education to better meet the needs of students with autism.

Taking these steps will benefit society as a whole, enriching people with autism, their loved ones and others alike. As the mother of one child with autism said, “Although my daughter has walked a long way, I have walked a longer way.”

Together, let us travel this road toward a more caring and inclusive world.

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